Paradigms in Learning Theory
In Behaviorism, behavior is shaped through positive or negative reinforcement. In positive reinforcement, the stimulus is applied encouraging the positive behavior to happen again. In negative reinforcement, the stimulus is withheld discouraging the negative behavior to happen again. Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner.
Examples of positive stimulus in educational technology might be points awarded, rights granted or being allowed to proceed to the next level in an activity.
Cognitivism came a response to behaviorism. Some researchers believed that people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to stimuli. Instead they believe that people are rational and require active participation in order to learn.
An interactive Flash tutorial would be an example of an Educational Technology developed for Cognitivism. If the Flash tutorial is set up in a non-linear fashion, the student can dictate their own course of learning.
Also a response to Behaviorism, Constructivism was developed to acknowledge that knowledge is constructed based on experiences. Each learner has a different interpretation and construction of process. Learners interpret their findings by integrating past experiences to a situation.
One example of a Constructivist Educational Technology would be a WebQuest that asks the student to create a project based on a topic. The WebQuest might give the student a set of tasks, but the interpretation of those tasks and the end results will always be different for each student.
ADDIE is a Instructional Design Model that consists of five phases: Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate.
One example of using the ADDIE model with students is to have them develop a project in the five phases. Students can analyze the scope of the project, work up the basic design through sketches and storyboards, develop the project, implement the project by presenting or displaying it and then evaluating their work. ADDIE can be as specific or as flexible as any student needs it to be which is why it is one of the top design processes.
Originated by Howard Garner in 1983, Multiple Intelligences describes seven ways that individuals perceive the world and learn. These intelligences include: Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Visual-Spatial, Body-Kinesthetic, providing a more balanced curriculum.
One example of implementing Multiple Intelligences might be assigning a project with various choices that might include:
1. Work with or without a partner
2. Produce a 5 minute radio show on the topic
3. Calculate the amount of ___ of a topic
4. Write a non-fiction story on the topic
5. Give a 5 minute oral presentation on the topic
6. Produce a 5 minute multimedia piece on the topic
Inquiry-based learning believes in students taking the lead in their own learning. Inquiry-based learning can be as little as the students taking actions in solving a problem laid out for them or as much as brainstorming and planning the activity with the instructor. Preparing Inquiry-based Projects relies on three basic steps: Pre-Planning, Brainstorming and Questioning. An Inquiry-based project in the end has four stages: Posing Questions, Finding Resources, Interpreting Information and Reporting Findings.
While chatting online and looking up facts on the Internet, students can work on an Inquiry-based Project from different locations through the use of an Educational Technology mind-mapping tool like MindMeister.
Nine Events of Instruction
Robert Gagne developed the Nine Events of Instruction in order to recognize the various stages in learning. These nine steps include
1. gaining attention
2. informing learners of the objective
3. stimulating recall of prior learning
4. presenting the stimulus
5. providing learning guidance
6. eliciting performance
7. providing feedback
8. assessing performance
9. enhancing retention and transfer
Examples for integrating Educational Technologies in each one of these stages might be:
1. gaining attention (showing a video on a topic)
2. informing learners of the objective (posing a question in a discussion forum)
3. stimulating recall of prior learning (a review on the topic via a quick Podcast)
4. presenting the stimulus (further define and break down the topic in a Mind-map)
5. providing learning guidance (have students view a demonstration on how to create the topic)
6. eliciting performance (ask students to create 5 different examples of the topic and post them in a wiki)
7. providing feedback (instructor or students respond to posts to check all examples as correct/incorrect)
8. assessing performance (instructor provides grading for posts)
9. enhancing retention and transfer (Wrap-up by having students pick out the topic out of a pool of topics)
Phases of Engagement
The Four Phases of Engagement were introduced in Engaging the Online Learner by Rita-Marie Conrad and J. Ana Donaldson. They define the instructor and learner roles during different phases of an online course. The four phases are: Newcomer, Cooperator, Collaborator and Initiator.
Activities that might reach these phases and involve Educational Technologies are:
1. Newcomer: Students using a symbol or images to describe themselves to the group in a discussion forum.
2. Cooperator: Arrange groups of two. Pairs discuss reading questions in a wiki and conclude on the best answer. Students post their answer in a Drop box set for everyone to view.
3. Collaborator: Have students post two or three words in a wiki summarizing what they have learned that week. Then have them post responses to their peers' words and decide on one word. 4. Initiator: Assign teams and have them develop a lesson/module to teach/facilitate during the last week.
The PQ4R model was published by Robert E. Slavin in 1994. It is an easy method that can help individuals better comprehend information. PQ4R stands for: Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review.
An examples of integrating Educational Technologies in the PQ4R model might be:
1. Include a short Podcast in the Announcement Area previewing the objectives for the week's module.
2. A content delivery method might be a self-paced PowerPoint Presentation.
3. Recap the information presented in the delivery in a Discussion Forum. Pose questions for the entire group, small groups or individuals to answer.
4. Assign a new-book for students to read online covering, or expanding on the topic.
5. Have students develop a quick mind map connecting key points in Mindmeister in order to reflect on the topic and make connections.
6. Have students present their mind map to the group in presentation software like Elluminate, or in an audio enhanced PowerPoint Presentation as a method of reciting.
7. Last but not least, create a short animation capturing the basics of the topic for students to review.